The city of Opelika, known once as the Trading Center of East Alabama, is the county seat of Lee County. Opelika is situated at the juncture of the Piedmont Upland and East Gulf Coastal Plain physiographic sections. Evolving from a small railroad town over the years, Opelika is part of the sixth fastest-growing small metropolitan area in the nation. Opelika is governed by a mayor-council government, with a mayor and a five-member city council.
Records indicate that the first white settlers arrived in the area now known as Opelika in the late 1830s, after the Creek Indians ceded the land to the U.S. government in the 1832 Treaty of Cusseta. Historians suggest that the Creek Indians settled this area for its water supply from a free-flowing limestone spring and for its rich soils.
In 1848, the Montgomery & West Point Railroad Company completed a rail line from Montgomery to Opelika and extended one to West Point, Georgia, three years later. This second line connected Opelika with Atlanta, Georgia, and was the only direct rail route between New Orleans and the Eastern Seaboard at the time, becoming one of the main trade lines for shipping raw cotton from southern plantations to the North.
Railroads spurred rapid growth for the settlement of Opelika, and it officially was chartered as a town on February 9, 1854. An additional rail line was added from Opelika to Columbus, Georgia, in 1855. These rail lines were destroyed, along with depots and warehouses full of supplies for Confederate forces defending Atlanta, when Union General Lovell Rousseau led a raid into east-central Alabama on July 19, 1864. After the Civil War ended, the city was in desperate need of rebuilding. The Alabama State Legislature created a new county out of parts of Macon, Russell, Chambers, and Tallapoosa counties, naming it after Confederate general Robert E. Lee. In 1866, citizens of the new Lee County met and voted that Opelika should be the new county seat. The town's first courthouse, replaced in 1897 with the present courthouse, was designed by renowned African American builder Horace King.
In 1868, an accidental fire destroyed most of Opelika's business district, catapulting Opelika into a chaotic period. Municipal government was unsuccessful in trying to fix the financial problems and political infighting that arose after Reconstruction ended in 1870. Finally, Gov. Edward O'Neal had to deploy the state militia to Opelika in order to restore peace and order.
Opelika expanded in the second half of the nineteenth century. Residents built an opera house and funded the installation of brick streets. In 1896, Opelika became one of 10 experimental sites for the postal service's new rural free delivery program. In 1900, local investors established the Opelika Cotton Mill as the first plant in the city, employing 125 workers. The mill stayed in business until the close of the twentieth century and is best known today, along with its surrounding mill village and the Golden Cherry Motel, as filming locations for the 1979 film Norma Rae. In 1914, a training school for nurses was established at the local hospital, operating for 18 years before being closed in 1931. By the 1920s, Opelika had 24 daily passenger trains stopping in the town. In 1925, the Pepperell Manufacturing Company (later WestPoint Home) was established and flourished until its recent closing in 2006. No textile mills remain open in the city.
During World War II, the U.S. Army constructed a prisoner-of-war camp in Opelika. Variously called Camp Opelika, the Opelika Internment Camp, and Opelika PW Camp, the facility officially opened on December 12, 1942, and eventually housed more than 2,700 prisoners; it closed on December 8, 1945. From 1950 to 1975, the major industries that funded Opelika's economy were linen, magnetic tape, auto tires, sheet-metal and iron-fabricating plants, bottling companies, bakeries, and publishing, textile, and hospital facilities. In 1963, Uniroyal built a tire plant in the city, and Diversified Products, an exercise-equipment manufacturer founded in part by future governor Fob James, opened a facility. James's company closed in 1989 and the tire plant, under the ownership of Michelin USA, closed in October 2009. In 2007, new industry accounted for almost 1,500 jobs and more than $321 million in capital investment. The city's most recent retail development, Tiger Town, was completed in 2005. With more than 750,000 square feet of retail shopping, Tiger Town is the largest retail center in East Alabama.
According to the 2010 Census, the population of the city of Opelika was 26,477. Of that number, 50.6 percent reported themselves as white, 43.5 percent as African American, 4.4 percent as Hispanic or Latino, 1.7 percent as Asian, and 0.3 percent as Native American. The median family income is $37,768, the median household income is $33,397, and the per capita income is $22,861.
The workforce in present-day Opelika is divided among the following occupational categories:
· Educational services, and health care and social assistance (26.6 percent)
· Manufacturing (14.2 percent)
· Retail trade (12.6 percent)
· Arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services (10.3 percent)
· Professional, scientific, management, and administrative and waste management services (8.5 percent)
· Construction (6.8 percent)
· Other services, except public administration (3.8 percent)
· Transportation and warehousing and utilities (5.1 percent)
· Finance, insurance, and real estate, rental, and leasing (4.5 percent)
· Public administration (4.2 percent)
· Wholesale trade (2.0 percent)
· Information (1.2 percent)
· Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and extractive (0.4 percent)
Opelika is home to a branch of Southern Union State Community College, a two-year community and technical college offering academic, industrial, and health-sciences training. The campus currently employs 72 full-time and 137 part-time staff. The Opelika City School system enrolls approximately 4,500 students and employs approximately 285 teachers on nine campuses. Opelika has three primary schools with grades K-2; three intermediate schools with grades 3-5; Opelika Middle School with grades 6-8; Opelika High School with grades 9-12; and the Opelika Learning Center.
Opelika is served by three main routes: U.S. 29/I-85, which runs southeast-northwest along the southern end of the city; U.S. 280, which runs north-south; and U.S. 431, which runs north on the eastern edge of the city. Norfolk Southern Corporation and Georgia Southwestern Railroad operate the railroad traffic through Opelika.
Events and Places of Interest
The Grand National Golf Course, part of Alabama's Robert Trent Jones Golf Trail, is located in Opelika and has hosted a number of national tournaments including the 1997 Nike Tour championship, the 1998 LPGA Tournament of Champions, and the 2000 NCAA Men's Division 1 National Championship. The Grand National site also hosts a conference center. Opelika also hosts the annual Dogwood and Azalea Trail and the Victorian Front Porch Christmas Tour, and is home to the Museum of East Alabama and Historic Downtown Opelika, accredited by the National Register of Historic Places. Opelika Municipal Park offers visitors rides on a miniature train, an annual concert series, and the Salem-Shotwell Covered Bridge, which is a restored section of a historic structure that once spanned Wacoochee Creek in Salem, Lee County.
People of National Importance
After World War II, John Herbert Orr, a local radio expert who was a member of the U.S. intelligence staff that investigated Germany's new magnetic recording tape technology, founded Orradio Industries, and eventually Ampex Corporation funded his recording technology. Orr placed his Ampex plant on the spot where Opelika's prisoner-of-war camp had stood.
The first of two Alabama state governors from Opelika was elected in the fall of 1900. Governor William J. Samford's term was cut short by his death in June 1901. The second Alabama state governor from Opelika was Fob James, who served from 1978 to 1982. He was re-elected in 1994. Opelika's first woman mayor was Barbara Patton in 1996.
Others of national importance born in Opelika include Joe Beckwith, former Major League baseball pitcher with the 1985 World
Series Champion Kansas City Royals; William Dickinson, U.S. Congressman from 1965 to 1993; Roy Lee Jackson, former Major League
baseball player; and Erick Strickland, former National Basketball Association player. James Voss, NASA astronaut, was actually born in Cordova, but considers Opelika his hometown. Artist Roger Brown was raised in Opelika. He is best known for his representational
art and was a member of a group of painters known as the Chicago Imagists.
Murray, Steve. "Opelika to Host Annual Meeting." Alabama Historical Association Newsletter 22 (Spring 2007): 5-8.
Richardson, Jesse M., ed. Book of Facts. Volume 1 of the Alabama Encyclopedia. Northport, Ala.: American Southern Publishing Company, 1965.
Published May 12, 2009
Last updated March 14, 2013