Jackson County


Russell Cave, in northwestern Jackson County, contains archeological Russell CaveLocated in the extreme northeast corner of the state, Jackson County is home to Russell Cave, an important archaeological site that contains one of the most complete records of prehistoric culture in the southeast United States. The city of Scottsboro was the site of the infamous trials of the Scottsboro Boys. It also boasts the Unclaimed Baggage Center, a huge outlet store for baggage left on airplanes worldwide. The county is governed by an elected five-member commission and includes 13 incorporated communities.

· Founding Date: December 13, 1819
· Area: 1,069 square miles
· Population: 53,227 (2010 Census)
· Major Waterways: Tennessee River
· Major Highways: U.S. 72
· County Seat: Scottsboro
· Largest City: Scottsboro

History 

Scottsboro is the county seat of Jackson County. Jackson County CourthouseJackson County was created by the Alabama State Legislature on December 13, 1819, from land acquired from the Cherokee Indians. The original county consisted of nearly twice its current area, but in 1821, it was cut in half in the creation of Decatur County, which was soon abolished. Some of its former territory was divided between Jackson and Madison counties, but most of the land went to the newly created Marshall County. Jackson County was named in honor of Gen. Andrew Jackson, who was visiting Huntsville and the Alabama General Assembly when the county was established. Most of the earliest settlers came to Jackson County from South Carolina, Tennessee, and Georgia, although some came from as far away as North Carolina and Virginia. Some of the earliest settlements and towns included Sauta Cave, Bellefonte, Bridgeport, Stevenson, and Scottsboro. During the Civil War, Jackson County was the site of much Young farmers relaxing at Skyline Farms, ca. 1937. Skyline Farmsfighting between Union and Confederate troops. The courthouse and several homes in Bellefonte were burned by Union troops, and combat took place at the Battle of Bridgeport and the Scottsboro Skirmish. Scottsboro gained national media attention during the 1930s when nine African American men, known popularly as the Scottsboro Boys, were wrongfully accused and convicted of raping two white women. In 1934, the federal government established Skyline Farms, one of several experimental cooperative farms, in Jackson County.

Left to right: Ozzie Powell, Willie Roberson, Clarence Scottsboro DefendantsWhen Jackson County was created in 1819, Sauta Cave was established as the temporary seat of justice, but shortly thereafter it was moved to the village of Sauta located near Birdsong Spring. In 1828, county records were moved into the new brick, two story courthouse in Bellefonte which served as the county seat for 40 years. In 1859, a county election was held to determine whether a new court house should be more centrally located in Stevenson or Scottsboro. Stevenson was chosen but the Civil War nullified this action, and the matter was not settled until 1868. On September 5, 1868, the Commissioners Court met in Bellefonte and voted to remove the county seat from Bellefonte to Scottsboro, named for its founder Robert T. Scott, a native of North Carolina. In November 1868, county records were moved from Bellefonte to a small brick house in Scottsboro rented by Probate Judge David Tate. (In the 1980s this "little brick" was moved to the grounds of the Scottsboro-Jackson County Heritage Center, located one block from the courthouse square.) The new courthouse was completed in 1870 at a cost of $25,000 and served the county until 1912 when the county commissioners began dismantling its walls. The new building was inspected and accepted in January 1913 and cost the county $44,503.03. Forty-one years later, a mass renovation was completed in 1954. In 1967 new office additions were added to the courthouse. The four small glass panes in the north door transom are the only components remaining in continuous use since the original building was constructed in Scottsboro in 1870.

On April 27, 2011, a massive storm, causing numerous powerful tornadoes, struck the southeastern United States. More than 250 people were killed in Alabama, including eight people in Jackson County communities of Pisgah (3), Higdon (1), Flat Rock (3), and Bridgeport (1).

Major Cities and Demographics 

Stevenson is a city in northeastern Jackson County. Stevenson According to the 2010 Census, the population was 53,227. Of that total, 91 percent of respondents identified themselves as white, 3.3 percent as African American, 2.6 percent as two or more races, 2.5 percent as Hispanic, 1.4 percent as Native American, and 0.3 percent as Asian. The median household income was $34,117, compared with $40,547 for the state as a whole, and the per capita income was $18,727, compared with $22,732 for the state as a whole. The county seat of Jackson County, Scottsboro, had a population of 14,770. Other significant population centers include Bridgeport and Stevenson.

Economy 

Like much of Alabama, farming was the prevailing occupation in Jackson County until the early twentieth century. The county's rugged terrain prevented large-scale agriculture, but the small farms in the valleys were relatively productive. Tobacco, livestock, wool, sorghum, and honey were some of the most important cash crops. Although there is an abundance of iron ore and coal in Jackson County, little mining has ever taken place. Some marble has been quarried in The federal government established Skyline Farms, a New Farmers at Skyline FarmsJackson County, although not as much as in Talladega. Large-scale industry began to develop in the first quarter of the twentieth century, and by the 1950s and 1960s, with the benefits of hydroelectric power, industry had surpassed agriculture as the major economic force in the county.

Employment 

The workforce in present-day Jackson County is divided among the following occupational categories:

· Manufacturing (29.6 percent)
· Educational services, and health care and social assistance (17.2   percent)
· Retail trade (12.0 percent)
· Construction (7.6 percent)
· Transportation and warehousing, and utilities (7.2 percent)
· Arts, entertainment, recreation, and accommodation and food services   (4.9 percent)
· Other services, except public administration (4.3 percent)
· Professional, scientific, management, and administrative and waste   management services (4.3 percent)
· Finance and insurance, and real estate, rental, and leasing (4.0   percent)
· Public administration (3.4 percent)
· Wholesale trade (2.7 percent)
· Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and extractive (2.1 percent)
· Information (0.7 percent)

Education 

The Jackson County School System employs approximately 775 teachers and administrators who serve more than 6,000 students in 19 primary and secondary schools. Scottsboro City Schools employ almost 400 teachers and administrators in six primary and secondary schools, serving more than 2,700 students. There are no colleges or universities in Jackson County.

Geography 

Jackson County is 7th in size among Alabama Jackson County MapComprising more than 1,000 square miles, Jackson County is located in the northeastern corner of the state. The county is part of the Cumberland Plateau physiographic section and sits in the southern range of the Appalachian Mountains. The varied terrain of Jackson County includes mountains and caves as well as limestone valleys and uplands covered with oak and pine forests. A section of the Warrior Coal Field is located in Jackson County. The county is bordered to the north by the state of Tennessee, to the east by the state of Georgia, to the southeast by DeKalb County, to the southwest by Marshall County, and to the west by Madison County.

Portions of the Tennessee River flow throughout Jackson County. The county is drained by both the Guntersville Lake and the Wheeler Lake sections of the river. Paint Rock River, one of the most significant tributaries of the Tennessee River, begins in the northwestern part of Jackson County. The river and its tributaries offer scenic views as well as recreational and economic opportunities for visitors and residents of Jackson County.

U.S. Highway 72 serves as Jackson County's main transportation route, running southwest-northeast. It connects the county to the Huntsville metropolitan area and to Chattanooga, Tennessee. Jackson County has two public airports: Scottsboro Municipal Airport in Scottsboro and Stevenson-Bridgeport Municipal Airport in Doran Cove.

Events and Places of Interest  

Stephens Gap is a privately owned gorge and Stephens GapThere are several opportunities for recreation in Jackson County. One of the most popular attractions in the county is Russell Cave National Monument, just west of Bridgeport. Evidence of human habitation in the cave dates back more than 10,000 years, and is one of the most complete records of prehistoric culture in the southeastern United States. The cave sits at the end of a 12-mile hiking trail and is surrounded by 310 acres of dense woodlands. The visitor's center houses a museum containing Native American artifacts and offers several audiovisual presentations. A ranger-led tour takes visitors to the cave, where they can learn about how occupants fed, clothed, and protected themselves. Each spring, the site serves as the venue for the Russell Cave Native American Festival, which features educational demonstrations about historic Native American culture.

The Walls of Jericho tract was acquired by Walls of JerichoPart of Guntersville Lake lies within Jackson County. The 69,000-acre lake is located on the southernmost point of the Tennessee River and is surrounded by the Appalachian Mountains. Visitors to the lake can camp, hike, boat, and fish. Goose Pond Colony in Scottsboro is a 360-acre recreational complex also located on the Tennessee River. The site includes lakefront cottages, camping and RV sites, and fishing, swimming, and boating opportunities. The site also boasts a civic center and amphitheatre as well as two 18-hole golf courses. The North Alabama Birding Trail crosses Jackson County as well. Site 44 of the trail is located at Russell Cave, and more than 115 species of birds have been recorded along its length. Visitors can also hike to the Walls of Jericho, a unique natural amphitheater at the headwaters of the Paint Rock River.

The railroad depot in Stevenson, northeastern Jackson County, Stevenson Railroad DepotIn addition to a variety of outdoor recreational activities and sites, Jackson County is home to a number of historical attractions. The Scottsboro-Jackson Heritage Center is housed in an 1881 Greek Revival mansion. The center includes a museum with exhibits on Native Americans and the Tennessee Valley Authority. The 1868 Jackson County Courthouse sits behind the mansion, and the nearby Sage Town pioneer village features a collection of log structures, including a cabin, schoolhouse, barn, and blacksmith shop. Stevenson is home to the Stevenson Railroad Depot Museum. The railroad junction played an important role during the Civil War as a Union stronghold and is today listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The museum includes exhibits of Native American artifacts and Civil War memorabilia.

Each June, the Stevenson Depot Days celebration commemorates the city's historic past with parades, music, food, and games. Jackson County also offers visitors a wealth of historic districts in Stevenson, Scottsboro, and Bridgeport. Each March, Bridgeport hosts the Siege of Bridgeport, the largest Civil War reenactment in Alabama, complete with cavalry charges and cannon firings.

Additional Resources  

The Heritage of Jackson County, Alabama. Clanton, Ala.: Heritage Publishing Consultants, 1998.

Kennamer, John Robert. The History of Jackson County, Alabama. Scottsboro, Ala.: Jackson County Historical Association, 1993.

Donna J. Siebenthaler
Auburn University


Published September 12, 2007
Last updated April 2, 2013