· Area: 631 square miles
· Population: 9,045 (2010 Census)
· Major Waterways: Tombigbee River, Black Warrior River
· Major Highways: Interstate 59, U.S. 43, U.S. 11
· County Seat: Eutaw
· Largest City: Eutaw
Greene County was created by an act of the Alabama Territorial Legislature on December 13, 1819, from lands ceded to the federal government by the Choctaw Cession of 1816. The county was named for Revolutionary War hero Nathaniel Greene, and the county seat, Eutaw, was named for the Battle of Eutaw Springs, in which Greene led his troops in the recapture of Charleston, South Carolina, from the British. In 1867, sections of Greene County were used to form Hale County. The first county seat was located at Erie, located on the banks of the Black Warrior River in what is now Hale County. As a result of flooding and the prevalence of yellow fever, the county seat was moved to the more central location of Eutaw in 1838. In the decades leading up to the Civil War, Eutaw experienced a golden era as the mercantile and legal center of the Black Belt. The first courthouse, built in 1838, burned in 1868. The current courthouse was built in 1993.
Because of its location in the fertile Black Belt, Greene County was an agricultural powerhouse during the nineteenth century. When Hale County was created in 1867, however, Greene County lost more than 40 percent of its land, causing its prominence and population to decline. In addition, the mechanization of cotton culture also took a major toll on the county's population, as sharecroppers were replaced by machinery. In 1867, the Alabama Great Southern Railroad lines were built and later the Frisco Railroad constructed lines through the county. The rail lines are now operated by the Norfolk Southern and Burlington Railroads. Major agricultural crops in the county today include beef cattle, catfish, timber, cotton, soybeans, corn, and pond-raised shrimp. Some of the major industries include the Greene County Steam Plant, Greene County Timber Company, Beeker Timber Company, Winchester Carton, Greene Track, Greene County Hospital and Maude Whatley Health Services.
· Arts, entertainment, recreation, and accommodation and food services (15.3 percent)
· Manufacturing (13.7 percent)
· Construction (11.9 percent)
· Transportation and warehousing, and utilities (7.5 percent)
· Other services, except public administration (6.5 percent)
· Professional, scientific, management, and administrative and waste management services (6.0 percent)
· Public administration (5.8 percent)
· Finance and insurance, and real estate, rental, and leasing (5.2 percent)
· Retail trade (4.7 percent)
· Wholesale trade (2.8 percent)
· Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and extractive (1.5 percent)
· Information (0.5 percent)
Comprising approximately 631 square miles, Greene County lies in the west-central area of the state, wholly within the Coastal Plain physiographic region. It is bounded to the north by Pickens and Tuscaloosa counties, to the east by Hale County, to the south by Marengo County, and to the west by Sumter County.
Events and Places of Interest
Warrior Reservoir, an 8,580-acre lake on the Warrior River, offers crappie, bream, largemouth bass, and striped bass fishing as well as primitive camping, hunting, and boating. The Tombigbee River also offers boating and fishing, and its tributary Sipsey River Swamp offers canoers more than 50,000 acres of bottomland hardwood wetlands. Greene County also has 39 historic structures listed on the National Register of Historic Places, including Kirkwood, a Greek Revival mansion constructed in 1860. Every October, the Greene County Historical Society hosts the Eutaw Pilgrimage, which features a tour of antebellum homes, churches, and the historic Courthouse Square. In August, the town of Eutaw hosts the annual Black Belt Roots Festival, which features live blues and gospel music, crafts, handmade quilts, and food.
Heritage of Greene County, Alabama. Clanton, Ala.: Heritage Publishing Consultants, Inc., 2001.